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There has been much interest in embedding small generators deep within distribution systems. The steady-state voltage rise resulting from the connection of these generators can be a major obstacle to their connection at the lower voltage levels. This article summarises the results of some generic studies, explaining this voltage rise issue and how it may be overcome. Methods discussed to counteract voltage rise are primary substation voltage reduction, reactive power import, autotransformers installation, conductor upgrading, and generation constraints.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2002