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Integration of electric drive vehicles with the power grid-a new application for vehicle batteries

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Summary form only given as follows. Most personal transportation vehicles sit parked about 22 hours each day, during which time they represent an idle asset. Vehicles that incorporate electric propulsion could be utilized as power sources while parked because the drive systems include the fundamental elements for generating AC power. Utilizing idle vehicles to provide valuable electric power functions can produce a positive net revenue stream and create a powerful economic incentive to own an electrically-propelled vehicle. Production of valued power services from electrically-propelled vehicles has been demonstrated. The range of services is broad, and includes mobile AC power, backup power for homes or businesses, power generation during peak demand periods, and grid ancillary services such as spinning reserves, regulation, reactive power, and transmission stabilization. Most of these functions already have established economic value when procured from nonvehicular sources. Battery EVs and grid connected hybrid vehicles could provide the energy and power capabilities of their battery packs to the grid. On a daily basis, the battery energy throughput resulting from these grid services will be larger than the energy throughput resulting from driving. The income stream generated from the grid services is expected to more than cover the amortized wear-out costs of the battery for both grid services and driving. Because of the increased usage resulting from grid services, battery packs will have to be replaced more often for battery suppliers but the cost of the battery replacement will be covered by the value of the grid services provided for consumers and automakers. With vehicle-to-grid services, there is the potential to create a compelling new economic rationale for electric drive vehicles

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Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, 2002. The Seventeenth Annual

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