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Summary form only given as follows. Effective operation of the electrical transmission system is critical to the health, safety, and economic viability of modern society. Electrical grid operations are becoming increasingly dependent upon information systems. Standardized open protocols are replacing more obscure vendor-specific SCADA protocols. Interconnectivity of SCADA systems to other information networks is becoming more prevalent. These trends create new vulnerabilities. Compromises in the confidentiality, availability, or integrity of these systems can potentially impact the reliability of system operations. Previous work at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory established a SCADA research laboratory, with test equipment and protocol analyzers. The emphasis of this prior research has been focused on identifying specific vulnerabilities to demonstrate specific countermeasure that could be applied to enhance SCADA security. A number of SCADA communications monitoring tools were investigated to identify techniques to monitor and/or alter SCADA communications. Technical countermeasures to enhance SCADA security are discussed.