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Retiming and clock scheduling for digital circuit optimization

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3 Author(s)
Xun Liu ; Dept. of Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA ; M. C. Papaefthymiou ; E. G. Friedman

This paper investigates the application of simultaneous retiming and clock scheduling for optimizing synchronous circuits under setup and hold constraints. Two optimization problems are explored: (1) clock period minimization and (2) tolerance maximization to clock-signal delay variations. Exact mixed-integer linear programming formulations and efficient heuristics are given for both problems. When both long and short paths are considered, circuits optimized by the combined application of retiming and clock scheduling can achieve shorter clock periods or demonstrate greater tolerance to clock-signal delay variations than circuits optimized by retiming or clock scheduling. Experiments with benchmark circuits demonstrate the effectiveness of the combined optimization. In comparison with the best result obtained by either of the two optimizations, the joint application of retiming and clock scheduling increased operating speeds by more than 8% on the average. It also increased tolerance to clock delay variations by an average of 12% over a broad range of target clock frequencies. Larger relative improvements were achieved for shorter clock periods, thus suggesting that simultaneous retiming and clock scheduling can play an important role in high-speed design

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems  (Volume:21 ,  Issue: 2 )