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Flip chip interconnect systems using copper wire stud bump and lead free solder

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4 Author(s)
Zama, S. ; The Furukawa Electr. Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan ; Baldwin, D.F. ; Hikami, T. ; Murata, H.

This research focuses on flip chip interconnect systems consisting of wire stud bumps and solder alloy interconnects. Conventional gold (Au) wire stud bumps and new copper (Cu) wire stud bumps were formed on the chip by wire stud bumping. Cu wire studs were bumped by controlling the ramp rate of ultrasonic power to eliminate the occurrence of under-pad chip cracks that tend to occur with high strength bonding wire. Lead free 96Sn3.5Ag0.5Cu (SnAgCu) alloy was used to interconnect the wire studs and printed circuit board. A comparison was made with conventional eutectic 63Sn37Pb (SnPb) alloy and 60In40Pb (InPb) alloy. Test vehicles were assembled with two different direct chip attachment (DCA) processes. When the basic reflow assembly using a conventional pick and place machine and convection reflow was used, 30% of the lead free test vehicles exhibited process defects. Other lead free test vehicles failed quickly in thermal shock testing. Applying the basic reflow assembly process is detrimental for the SnAgCu test vehicles. On the other hand, when compression bonding assembly was performed using a high accuracy flip chip bonder, the lead free test vehicles exhibited no process defects and the thermal shock reliability improved. Cu stud-SnAgCu test vehicles (Cu-SnAgCu) in particular showed longer mean time to failure, 2269 cycles for the B stage process and 3237 cycles for high temperature bonding. The C-SAM and cross section analysis of the Cu stud bump assemblies indicated less delamination in thermal shock testing and significantly less Cu diffusion into the solder compared to Au stud bumped test vehicles. The Cu stud-SnAgCu systems form stable interconnects when assembled using a compression bonding process. Moreover, Cu wire stud bumping offers an acceptable solution for lead free assembly

Published in:

Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 4 )