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A vision-based masking model for spread-spectrum image watermarking

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2 Author(s)
Kutter, M. ; Signal Process. Lab., Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technol., Lausanne, Switzerland ; Winkler, S.

We present a perceptual model for hiding a spread-spectrum watermark of variable amplitude and density in an image. The model takes into account the sensitivity and masking behavior of the human visual system by means of a local isotropic contrast measure and a masking model. We compare the insertion of this watermark in luminance images and in the blue channel of color images. We also evaluate the robustness of such a watermark with respect to its embedding density. Our results show that this approach facilitates the insertion of a more robust watermark while preserving the visual quality of the original. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the maximum watermark density generally does not provide the best detection performance

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Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 1 )