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Direction finding with a four-element Adcock-Butler matrix antenna array

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4 Author(s)
Chan, Y.T. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., R. Mil. Coll. of Canada, Kingston, Ont., Canada ; Lee, B.H. ; Inkol, R. ; Yuan, Q.

The conventional analog Adcock-Butler matrix (ABM) antenna array direction finder suffers from systemic errors, component matching problems, and bandwidth limitations. Three digital bearing estimators are developed as candidates to replace the analog signal processing portion of the ABM. Using the same antenna array, they perform all signal processing in the frequency domain, thereby benefitting from the computational efficiency of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm. The first estimator requires two analog-to-digital converters (A-D) and three antenna elements. It multiplies the difference between the discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) of the output signals from two antenna elements with that from a third antenna element. At each frequency component, the phase of this product is a function of the bearing. A weighted least squares (LS) fit through all the phase components then gives a bearing estimate. The second estimator is similar to the first but uses three A-D and all four antenna elements. The output signal from the additional antenna element provides an independent estimate of the weights for the LS fit, giving an improvement in accuracy. The third estimator applies the physical constraint existing between the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) of a signal intercepted by two perpendicular sets of antenna elements. This yields a better estimator than simple averaging of the bearing from each set of antenna elements. The simulation studies used sinusoids and broadband signals to corroborate the theoretical treatment and demonstrate the accuracy achievable with these estimators. All three direction finders have superior performance in comparison with the analog ABM

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Aerospace and Electronic Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:37 ,  Issue: 4 )