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Effect of Cu stud microstructure and electroplating process on intermetallic compounds growth and reliability of flip-chip solder bump

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5 Author(s)
Guo-Wei Xiao ; Dept. of Electr. & Electron. Eng., Hong Kong Univ. of Sci. & Technol., Kowloon, China ; Chan, Philip C.H. ; Teng, A. ; Jian Cai
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In electroplating-based flip-chip technology, the Cu stud and solder deposition processes are two of the most important factors affecting the reliability of solder joints. The growth of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) also plays a critical role. In this paper, the effect of Cu stud surface roughness and microstructures on the reliability of solder joint was studied. The surface roughness of the Cu stud was increased as the Cu electroplating current density increased. The microstructural morphology of the Cu-Sn IMC layer was affected by Cu stud surface structure. We found the growth rate of IMC layer increased with the increasing of Cu stud grain size and surface roughness during aging test. The growth kinetics of Cu-Sn intermetallic compound formation for 63Sn/37Pb solder followed the Arrhenius equation with activation energy varied from 0.78 eV to 1.14 eV. The ratios of Cu3 Sn layer thickness to the total Cu-Sn IMC layer thickness was in the range of 0.5 to 0.15 for various Cu microstructures at 150°C during thermal aging test. The shear strength of solder bump was measured after thermal aging and temperature/humidity tests. The relationship between electroplating process and reliability of solder joints was established. The failure mode of solder joints was also analyzed

Published in:

Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 4 )