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Control of functional neuromuscular stimulation systems for standing and locomotion in paraplegics

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6 Author(s)
Chizek, H.J. ; Dept. of Syst. Eng. & Biomed. Eng., Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH, USA ; Kobetic, R. ; Marsolais, E.B. ; Abbas, J.J.
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The authors adopt a control-systems perspective in reviewing past applications of functional neuromuscular stimulation for providing lower extremity motor function in paralyzed individuals. Specifically, their approach emphasizes direct computer-controlled electrical stimulation of paralyzed muscle rather than triggering reflexes. In experimental settings it provides paralyzed individuals with the ability to do functional tasks while standing, to walk short distances on varying surfaces, to negotiate obstacles, and to climb and descend stairs

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Proceedings of the IEEE  (Volume:76 ,  Issue: 9 )