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Summary form only given. Photonic band gap (PBG) materials consist of dielectric media in which the refractive index varies periodically in space. The PBG gives rise to the exciting possibility that all linear optical properties of the material, such as the transmission and reflection can be defined by the manufacturing process. Also, the phase and group velocity can be designed with respect to the corresponding properties of the non-structured material. The characterization of linear effects in PBGs continues to be of basic interest, as the fabrication of a PBG crystal for the near infrared or visible spectral region can be a high technical challenge, where a linear characterization forms an important tool to judge progress and quality of manufacturing. Our approach is to move from the NIR wavelengths suited for potential mass applications (in the telecommunication range - 1.5 /spl mu/m) to longer FIR wavelengths of hundreds of /spl mu/m (THz range).