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Large-area single-mode VCSELs and the self-aligned surface relief

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6 Author(s)
Unold, H.J. ; Dept. of Optoelectron., Ulm Univ., Germany ; Mahmoud, S.W.Z. ; Jager, R. ; Grabherr, M.
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The effect of mode-profile specific etching of the top layer in selectively oxidized vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures at 850-nm emission wavelength is examined. For high reproducibility, a self-aligned etching technique is demonstrated which aligns surface etch and oxide aperture by only one additional photoresist step. By optimizing layer structure and etch spot size, completely single-mode devices with aperture diameters up to 16 μm are obtained. Maximum single-fundamental-mode output power of 3.4 mW at room temperature and over 1 mW at 0°C is obtained with a maximum far-field angle of 5.5°. Using parameters for etch spot height and diameter, Gaussian beam spot size and phase curvature, the measured diffracted far-field distribution is fitted well over a 20-dB intensity range. The chosen fit parameters therefore enable one to estimate the amount of phase curvature within the VCSEL for different operation currents, which cannot be obtained with available measurement methods

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Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:7 ,  Issue: 2 )