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The double-directional radio channel

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3 Author(s)
Steinbauer, M. ; Inst. fur Nachrichtentech. und Hochfrequenztech., Tech. Univ. Wien, Austria ; Molisch, A.F. ; Bonek, E.

We introduce the concept of the double-directional mobile radio channel. It is called this because it includes angular information at both link ends, e.g., at the base station and at the mobile station. We show that this angular information can be obtained with synchronized antenna arrays at both link ends. In wideband high-resolution measurements, we use a switched linear array at the receiver and a virtual-cross array at the transmitter. We evaluate the raw measurement data with a technique that alternately used estimation and beamforming, and that relied on ESPRIT (estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques) to obtain superresolution in both angular domains and in the delay domain. In sample microcellular scenarios (open and closed courtyard, line-of-sight and obstructed line-of-sight), up to 50 individual propagation paths are determined. The major multipath components are matched precisely to the physical environment by geometrical considerations. Up to three reflection/scattering points per propagation path are identified and localized, lending insight into the multipath spreading properties in a microcell. The extracted multipath parameters allow unambiguous scatterer identification and channel characterization, independently of a specific antenna, its configuration (single/array), and its pattern. The measurement results demonstrate a considerable amount of power being carried via multiply reflected components, thus suggesting revisiting the popular single-bounce propagation models. It turns out that the wideband double-directional evaluation is a most complete method for separating multipath components. Due to its excellent spatial resolution, the double-directional concept provides accurate estimates of the channel's multipath-richness, which is the important parameter for the capacity of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels

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Antennas and Propagation Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 4 )