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Virtual environments for medical training: graphical and haptic simulation of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration

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3 Author(s)
Basdogan, C. ; Lab. for Human & Machine Haptics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA ; Ho, C.-H. ; Srinivasan, M.A.

We develop a computer-based training system to simulate laparoscopic procedures in virtual environments for medical training. The major hardware components of our system include a computer monitor to display visual interactions between 3D virtual models of organs and instruments together with a pair of force feedback devices interfaced with laparoscopic instruments to simulate haptic interactions. We simulate a surgical procedure that involves inserting a catheter into the cystic duct using a pair of laparoscopic forceps. This procedure is performed during laparoscopic cholecystectomy to search for gallstones in the common bile duct. Using the proposed system, the user can be trained to grasp and insert a flexible and freely moving catheter into the deformable cystic duct in virtual environments. The associated deformations are displayed on the computer screen and the reaction forces are fed back to the user through the force feedback devices. A hybrid modeling approach was developed to simulate the real-time visual and haptic interactions that take place between the forceps and the catheter, as well as the duct; and between the catheter and the duct

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Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on  (Volume:6 ,  Issue: 3 )