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Spatial, polarization, and pattern diversity for wireless handheld terminals

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4 Author(s)
Dietrich, C.B., Jr. ; Bradley Dept. of Electr. Eng., Virginia Polytech. Inst. & State Univ., Blacksburg, VA, USA ; Dietze, K. ; Nealy, J.R. ; Stutzman, W.L.

This paper examines the antenna diversity configurations that improve the performance in handheld radios. Experiments using spatial, polarization, and pattern diversity were conducted for both line-of-sight (LOS) and obstructed outdoor and indoor multipath channels that experienced Ricean fading. Antenna separation, polarization, and pattern were varied independently to the extent possible. Envelope correlation, power imbalance, and diversity gain were calculated from the measurements. Diversity performance is measured by diversity gain, which is the difference in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between the output of a diversity combiner and the signal on a single branch, measured at a given probability level. Diversity gain increases with decreasing envelope correlation between the antenna diversity branches. However, diversity gain decreases as the power imbalance between diversity branches increases because a branch that has a weak signal has only a small contribution to the combined signal. Diversity gain values of 7-9 dB at the 99% reliability level were achieved in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) channels for all diversity configurations even with very small antenna spacings. The use of polarization diversity reduced polarization mismatches, improving SNR by up to 12 dB even in LOS channels

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:49 ,  Issue: 9 )