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Discusses the single-unit recording characteristics of microelectrode arrays containing on-chip signal processing circuitry. Probes buffered using on-chip unity-gain operational amplifiers provide an output resistance of 200 Ω with an input-referred noise of 11-μV root-mean-square (rms) (100 Hz-10 kHz). Simultaneous in vivo recordings from single neurons using buffered and unbuffered (passive) iridium recording sites separated by less than 20 μm have shown that the use of on-chip circuitry does not significantly degrade system noise. Single-unit neural activity has also been studied using probes containing closed-loop preamplifiers having a voltage gain of 40 dB and a bandwidth of 13 kHz, and several input de-baseline stabilization techniques have been evaluated. Low-noise in vivo recordings with a multiplexed probe have been demonstrated for the first time using an external asymmetrical clock running at 200 kHz. The multiplexed system adds less than 8-μV rms of noise to the recorded signals, suppressing the 5-V clock transitions to less than 2 ppm.