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Calibrated single-plunge bipolar electrode array for mapping myocardial vector fields in three dimensions during high-voltage transthoracic defibrillation

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4 Author(s)
O. C. Deale ; Dept. of Med., Cornell Univ., NY, USA ; K. T. Ng ; E. J. Kim-Van Housen ; B. B. Lerman

Mapping of the myocardial scalar electric potential during defibrillation is normally performed with unipolar electrodes connected to voltage dividers and a global potential reference. Unfortunately, vector potential gradients that are calculated from these data tend to exhibit a high sensitivity to measurement errors. This paper presents a calibrated single-plunge bipolar electrode array (EA) that avoids the error sensitivity of unipolar electrodes. The EA is triaxial, uses a local potential reference, and simultaneously measures all 3 components of the myocardial electric field vector. An electrode spacing of approximately 500 μm allows the EA to be direct-coupled to high-input-impedance, isolated, differential amplifiers and eliminates the need for voltage dividers. Calibration is performed with an electrolytic tank in which an accurately measured, uniform electric field is produced. For each EA, unique calibration matrices are determined which transform potential difference readings from the EA to orthogonal components of the electric field vector. Elements of the matrices are evaluated by least squares multiple regression analysis of data recorded during rotation of the electric field. The design of the electrolytic tank and electrode holder allows the electric field vector to be rotated globally with respect to the electrode axes. The calibration technique corrects for both field perturbation by the plunge electrode body and deviations from orthogonality of the electrode axes. A unique feature of this technique is that it eliminates the need for mechanical measurement of the electrode spacing. During calibration, only angular settings and voltages are recorded. For this study, ten EAs were calibrated and their root-mean-square (rms) errors evaluated. The mean of the vector magnitude rms errors over the set of 10 EAs was 0.40% and the standard deviation 0.07%. Calibrated EAs were also tested for multisite mapping in 4 dogs during high-voltage transthorac- - ic shocks.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering  (Volume:48 ,  Issue: 8 )