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An overview of solder bump shape prediction algorithms with validations

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2 Author(s)
Kuo-Ning Chiang ; Dept. of Power Mech. Eng., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China ; Chang-An Yuan

The trend to reduce the size of electronic packages and develop increasingly sophisticated electronic devices with more, higher density inputs/outputs (I/Os), leads to the use of area array packages using chip scale packaging (CSP), flip chip (FC), and wafer level packaging (WLP) technologies. Greater attention has been paid to the reliability of solder joints and the assembly yield of the surface mounting process as use of advanced electronic packaging technologies has increased. The solder joint reliability has been observed to be highly dependent on solder joint geometry as well as solder material properties, such that predicting solder reflow shape became a critical issue for the electronic research community. In general, the truncated sphere method, the analytical solution and the energy-based algorithm are the three major methods for solder reflow geometry prediction. This research develops solder joint reliability design guidelines to accurately predict both the solder bump geometry and the standoff height for reflow soldered joints in area array packages. Three simulation methods such as truncated-sphere theory force-balanced analytical solution and energy-based approach for prediction of the solder bump geometry are each examined in detail, and the thermal enhanced BGA (TBGA) and flip chip packages are selected as the benchmark models to compare the simulation and experimental results. The simulation results indicate that all three methods can accurately predict the solder reflow shape in an accurate range

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 2 )