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Science and technology roadmaps

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2 Author(s)
Kostoff, R.N. ; Office of Naval Res., Arlington, VA, USA ; Schaller, R.R.

Science and technology (S&T) roadmaps are used in industry, government and academia to portray the structural relationships among science, technology, and applications. Roadmaps are employed as decision aids to improve coordination of activities and resources in increasingly complex and uncertain environments. Specific uses of roadmaps include: S&T management including strategy, planning, executing, reviewing, and transitioning; S&T marketing; enhancing communications among researchers, technologists, product managers, suppliers, users, and other stakeholders; identifying gaps and opportunities in S&T programs; and identifying obstacles to rapid and low-cost product development. S&T managers also use roadmaps to help identify those S&T areas that have high potential promise, and to accelerate the transfer of the S&T to eventual products. However, there has been little attention paid to the practice of roadmapping in the published literature. This paper is a first attempt to bring some common definition to roadmapping practices and display the underlying unity of seemingly fragmented roadmap approaches. The paper begins with generic roadmap definitions, including a taxonomy of roadmaps that attempts to better classify and unify the broad spectrum of roadmap objectives and uses. Characteristics of retrospective and prospective roadmaps are then identified and analyzed, as well as summary characteristics of bibliometric-based S&T mapping techniques. The roadmap construction process, including fundamental principles for constructing high-quality roadmaps, is presented in detail

Published in:

Engineering Management, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:48 ,  Issue: 2 )