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We present a built-in self-test (BIST) approach able to detect and accurately diagnose all single and practically all multiple faulty programmable logic blocks (PLBs) in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with maximum diagnostic resolution. Unlike conventional BIST, FPGA BIST does not involve any area overhead or performance degradation. We also identify and solve the problem of testing configuration multiplexers that was either ignored or incorrectly solved in most previous work. We introduce the first diagnosis method for multiple faulty PLBs; for any faulty PLB, we also identify its internal faulty modules or modes of operation. Our accurate diagnosis provides the basis for both failure analysis used for yield improvement and for any repair strategy used for fault-tolerance in reconfigurable systems. We present experimental results showing detection and identification of faulty PLBs in actual defective FPGAs. Our BIST architecture is easily scalable.