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We present a computationally efficient and robust image reconstruction algorithm for breast cancer detection using an ultrawideband confocal microwave imaging system. To test the efficacy of this approach, we have developed a two-dimensional (2-D) anatomically realistic MRI-derived FDTD model of the cancerous breast. The image reconstruction algorithm is applied to FDTD-computed backscatter signals, resulting in a microwave image that clearly identifies the presence and location of the malignant lesion. These simulations demonstrate the feasibility of detecting and imaging small breast tumors using this novel approach.