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Information processing in the human brain is based on advanced parallel processing with a large number of memories and interconnections. To achieve such highly advanced parallel processing, the human brain has modules with layered structures, that is, three-dimensional structures as basic processing units. The human retina and visual cortex also have layered structures with various kinds of cells. The three-dimensional (3D) integration technology reported here achieves an image processing and pattern recognition system with parts of functions of the retina and visual cortex using silicon.