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Fully constrained least squares linear spectral mixture analysis method for material quantification in hyperspectral imagery

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2 Author(s)
Heinz, D.C. ; Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Electr. Eng., Maryland Univ., Baltimore, MD, USA ; Chein-I Chang

Linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) is a widely used technique in remote sensing to estimate abundance fractions of materials present in an image pixel. In order for an LSMA-based estimator to produce accurate amounts of material abundance, it generally requires two constraints imposed on the linear mixture model used in LSMA, which are the abundance sum-to-one constraint and the abundance nonnegativity constraint. The first constraint requires the sum of the abundance fractions of materials present in an image pixel to be one and the second imposes a constraint that these abundance fractions be nonnegative. While the first constraint is easy to deal with, the second constraint is difficult to implement since it results in a set of inequalities and can only be solved by numerical methods. Consequently, most LSMA-based methods are unconstrained and produce solutions that do not necessarily reflect the true abundance fractions of materials. In this case, they can only be used for the purposes of material detection, discrimination, and classification, but not for material quantification. The authors present a fully constrained least squares (FCLS) linear spectral mixture analysis method for material quantification. Since no closed form can be derived for this method, an efficient algorithm is developed to yield optimal solutions. In order to further apply the designed algorithm to unknown image scenes, an unsupervised least squares error (LSE)-based method is also proposed to extend the FCLS method in an unsupervised manner

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:39 ,  Issue: 3 )