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Codes on graphs: normal realizations

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1 Author(s)
Forney, G.D., Jr. ; Lab. for Inf. & Decision Syst., MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA

A generalized state realization of the Wiberg (1996) type is called normal if symbol variables have degree 1 and state variables have degree 2. A natural graphical model of such a realization has leaf edges representing symbols, ordinary edges representing states, and vertices representing local constraints. Such a graph can be decoded by any version of the sum-product algorithm. Any state realization of a code can be put into normal form without essential change in the corresponding graph or in its decoding complexity. Group or linear codes are generated by group or linear state realizations. On a cycle-free graph, there exists a well-defined minimal canonical realization, and the sum-product algorithm is exact. However, the cut-set bound shows that graphs with cycles may have a superior performance-complexity tradeoff, although the sum-product algorithm is then inexact and iterative, and minimal realizations are not well-defined. Efficient cyclic and cycle-free realizations of Reed-Muller (RM) codes are given as examples. The dual of a normal group realization, appropriately defined, generates the dual group code. The dual realization has the same graph topology as the primal realization, replaces symbol and state variables by their character groups, and replaces primal local constraints by their duals. This fundamental result has many applications, including to dual state spaces, dual minimal trellises, duals to Tanner (1981) graphs, dual input/output (I/O) systems, and dual kernel and image representations. Finally a group code may be decoded using the dual graph, with appropriate Fourier transforms of the inputs and outputs; this can simplify decoding of high-rate codes

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Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:47 ,  Issue: 2 )