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The effects of underfill and its material models on thermomechanical behaviors of a flip chip package

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5 Author(s)
Liu Chen ; Inst. of Metall., Acad. Sinica, Shanghai, China ; Qun Zhang ; Guozhong Wang ; Xiaoming Xie
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In this paper, the effects of underfill on thermomechanical behavior of two types of flip chip packages with different bumping size and stand-off height were investigated under thermal cycling both experimentally and two-dimensional (2-D) finite element simulation. The materials inelasticity, i.e., viscoelasticity of underfill U8437-3 and viscoplasticity of 60 Sn40 Pb solder, were considered in the simulations. The results show that the use of underfill encapsulant increases tremendously (~20 times) the thermal fatigue lifetime of SnPb solder joint, weakens the effects of stand-off height on the reliability, and changes the deformation mode of the package. It was found that the thermal fatigue crack occurs in the region with maximum plastic strain range, and the Coffin-Manson type equation could then be used for both packages with and without underfill. Solder joint crack initiation occurred before delamination when using underfill with good adhesion (75 MPa) and the underfill delamination may not be a dominant failure mode in the present study. The interfacial stresses at the underfill/chip interface were calculated to analyze delamination sites, which agree with the results from acoustic image. Moreover, the effects of material models of underfill, i.e., constant elasticity (EC) and temperature dependent elasticity (ET) as well as the viscoelasticity (VE), on the thermomechanical behaviors of flip chip package were also studied in the simulation. The VE model gives comparatively large plastic strain range and large displacements in the shear direction, as well as decreased solders joint lifetime. The ET model gives similar results as the VE model and could be used instead of VE in simulations for the purpose of simplicity

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Advanced Packaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 1 )