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The surface-emitting laser (SEL) is considered one of the most important devices for optical interconnects and LANs, enabling ultra parallel information transmission in lightwave and computer systems. We introduce its history, fabrication technology, and discuss the advantages. Then, we review the progress of the surface emitting laser and the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL), covering the spectral band from infrared to ultraviolet by featuring its physics, materials, fabrication technology, and performances, such as threshold, output powers, polarizations, line-width, modulation, reliability, and so on.
Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of (Volume:6 , Issue: 6 )
Date of Publication: Nov.-Dec. 2000