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Optical techniques for measurement-interferometry, spectrometry and polarimetry"have long been used in materials measurement and environmental evaluation. The optical fiber lends get more flexibility in the implementation of these basic concepts. Fiber-optic technology has, for over 30 years, made important contributions to the science of measurement. The paper presents a perspective on these contributions which while far from exhaustive highlights the important conceptual advances made in the early days of optical fiber technology and the breadth of application which has emerged. There are also apparent opportunities for yet more imaginative research in applying guided-wave optics to emerging and challenging measurement requirements ranging from microsystems characterization to cellular biochemistry to art restoration.