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Wait's complex-image principle generalized to arbitrary sources

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3 Author(s)
Lindell, I.V. ; Electromagn. Lab., Helsinki Univ. of Technol., Espoo, Finland ; Hanninen, J. ; Pirjola, R.

The well-known simple and remarkably accurate approximate low-frequency (LF) complex-image method introduced in 1969 by J. R. Wait to compute the effect of the ground to the field of a divergenceless horizontal current (vertical magnetic current) is generalized to arbitrary current sources through the exact image formulation. The images of a vertical dipole, a horizontal current segment, and an oscillating point charge are first reduced to simplified but asymptotically exact forms and, subsequently, in terms of delta and step-functions to approximate image expressions that also include Wait's image. The novel part of the image is tested numerically through a geophysical example

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:48 ,  Issue: 10 )