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Low-grazing angle scattering from rough surfaces in a duct formed by a linear-square refractive index profile

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2 Author(s)
Awadallah, R.S. ; Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD, USA ; Brown, G.S.

The problem of rough surface scattering and propagation over rough terrain in a ducting environment has been receiving considerable attention in the literature. One popular method of modeling this problem is the parabolic wave equation (PWE) method. An alternative method is the boundary integral equation (BIE) method. The implementation of the BIE in inhomogeneous media (ducting environments) is not straightforward, however, since the Green's function for such a medium is not usually known. In this paper, a closed-form approximation of the Green's function for a two-dimensional (2-D) ducting environment formed by a linear-square refractive index profile is derived using asymptotic techniques. This Green's function greatly facilitates the use of the BIE approach to study low-grazing angle (LGA) rough surface scattering and propagation over rough surfaces in the aforementioned ducting environment. This paper demonstrates how the BIE method can model the combined effects of surface roughness and medium inhomogeneity in a very rigorous fashion. Furthermore, it illustrates its capability of accurately predicting scattering in all directions including backscattering. The boundary integral equation of interest is solved via the method of ordered multiple interactions (MOMI), which eliminates the requirements of matrix storage and inversion and, hence, allows the application of the BIE method to very long rough surfaces

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:48 ,  Issue: 9 )