By Topic

Optimal differential energy watermarking of DCT encoded images and video

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$33 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
G. C. Langelaar ; Delft Univ. of Technol., Netherlands ; R. L. Lagendijk

This paper proposes the differential energy watermarking (DEW) algorithm for JPEG/MPEG streams. The DEW algorithm embeds label bits by selectively discarding high frequency discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients in certain image regions. The performance of the proposed watermarking algorithm is evaluated by the robustness of the watermark, the size of the watermark, and the visual degradation the watermark introduces. These performance factors are controlled by three parameters, namely the maximal coarseness of the quantizer used in pre-encoding, the number of DCT blocks used to embed a single watermark bit, and the lowest DCT coefficient that we permit to be discarded. We follow a rigorous approach to optimizing the performance and choosing the correct parameter settings by developing a statistical model for the watermarking algorithm. Using this model, we can derive the probability that a label bit cannot be embedded. The resulting model can be used, for instance, for maximizing the robustness against re-encoding and for selecting adequate error correcting codes for the label bit string

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 1 )