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The complexity and interconnectedness of information systems is growing. There must be some way to systematically assess the risk to critical infrastructures. Work began two decades ago (1980s) on a comprehensive theoretical framework to model and identify risks to large-scale and complex systems. The framework, hierarchical holographic modeling (HHM) (Y.Y. Haimes, 1981; 1998) is to conventional modeling schemes what holography is to conventional photography. Holography captures images in three dimensions, as compared with conventional photography's two-dimensional, planar representation. Likewise, HHM endorses a gestalt and holistic philosophy, which allows it to capture more dimensions than modeling schemes that yield planar models. HHM promotes a systemic process that identifies most, if not all, important and critical sources of risk.