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This paper introduces an in-process measurement system that does not pause during the machining processes. The system could result in enhanced productivity and quality control in manufacturing processes that use a surface grinding spindle. For the gauging sensor of the measurement system, we propose an eddy-current sensor because it is a noncontact type, which uses an eddy current induced when a metallic material is placed in a high-frequency electromagnetic field. Also, it is very insensitive to other kinds of interference such as cutting fluids, coolants, contact pressure, and wear at the contact point. For data analysis, the measurement system was modeled as a linearized discrete form, and the states with noises were estimated by an extended Kalman filter. Validation of this system was performed through a simulation and an experiment.