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The development of higher frequency ultrasound imaging systems affords a unique opportunity to visualize living tissue at the microscopic level. This work was undertaken to assess the potential of ultrasound imaging in vivo using the 100-200 MHz range. Spherically focused lithium niobate transducers were fabricated. The properties of a 200 MHz center frequency device are described in detail. This transducer showed good sensitivity with an insertion loss of 18 dB at 200 MHz. Resolution of 14 /spl mu/m in the lateral direction and 12 /spl mu/m in the axial direction was achieved with f/1.14 focusing. A linear mechanical scan system and a scan converter were used to generate B-scan images at a frame rate up to 12 frames per second. System performance in B-mode imaging is limited by frequency dependent attenuation in tissues. An alternative technique, zone-focus image collection, was investigated to extend depth of field. Images of coronary arteries, the eye, and skin are presented along with some preliminary correlations with histology. These results demonstrate the feasibility of ultrasound biomicroscopy In the 100-200 MHz range. Further development of ultrasound backscatter imaging at frequencies up to and above 200 MHz will contribute valuable information about tissue microstructure.