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This paper presents a model-based vision system for dentistry that will assist in diagnosis, treatment planning, and surgical simulation. Dentistry requires an accurate three-dimensional (3-D) representation of the teeth and jaws for diagnostic and treatment purposes. The proposed integrated computer vision system constructs a 3-D model of the patient's dental occlusion using an intraoral video camera. A modified shape from shading (SFS) technique, using perspective projection and camera calibration, extracts the 3-D information from a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) images of the jaw. Data fusion of range data and 3-D registration techniques develop the complete jaw model. Triangulation is then performed, and a solid 3-D model is reconstructed. The system performance is investigated using ground truth data, and the results show acceptable reconstruction accuracy.