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Frequency and angular variations of land surface microwave emissivities: can we estimate SSM/T and AMSU emissivities from SSM/I emissivities?

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4 Author(s)
Prigent, C. ; NASA Goddard Inst. for Space Studies, Columbia Univ., New York, NY, USA ; Wigneron, J.-P. ; Rossow, W.B. ; Pardo-Carrion, J.R.

To retrieve temperature and humidity profiles from special sensor microwave/temperature (SSM/T) and advanced microwave sounding units (AMSU), it is important to quantify the contribution of the Earth surface emission. So far, no global estimates of the land surface emissivities are available at SSM/T and AMSU frequencies and scanning conditions. The land surface emissivities have been previously calculated for the globe from the SSM/I conical scanner between 19 and 85 GHz. To analyze the feasibility of deriving SSM/T and AMSU land surface emissivities from SSM/I emissivities, the spectral and angular variations of the emissivities are studied, with the help of ground-based measurements, models, and satellite estimates. Up to 100 GHz, for snow and ice free areas, the SSM/T and AMSU emissivities can be derived with useful accuracy from the SSM/I emissivities. The emissivities can be linearly interpolated in frequency. Based on ground-based emissivity measurements of various surface types, a simple model is proposed to estimate SSM/T and AMSU emissivities for all zenith angles knowing only the emissivities for the vertical and horizontal polarizations at 53° zenith angle. The method is tested on the SSM/T-2 91.655 GHz channels. The mean difference between the SSM/T-2 and SSM/I-derived emissivities is ⩽0.01 for all zenith angles with a root mean squared (RMS) difference of ≈0.02. Above 100 GHz, preliminary results are presented at 150 GHz based on SSM/T-2 observations and are compared with the very few estimations, available in the literature

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Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:38 ,  Issue: 5 )