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End-to-end delay analysis of videoconferencing over packet-switched networks

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2 Author(s)
Baldi, M. ; Dept. of Comput. Sci., Politecnico di Torino, Italy ; Ofek, Y.

Videoconferencing is an important global application-it enables people around the globe to interact when distance separates them. In order for the participants in a videoconference call to interact naturally, the end-to-end delay should be below human perception; even though an objective and unique figure cannot be set, 100 ms is widely recognized as the desired one-way delay requirement for interaction. Since the global propagation delay can be about 100 ms, the actual end-to-end delay budget available to the system designer (excluding propagation delay) can be no more than 10 ms. We identify the components of the end-to-end delay in various configurations with the objective of understanding how it can be kept below the desired 10-ms bound. We analyze these components step-by-step through six system configurations obtained by combining three generic network architectures with two video encoding schemes. We study the transmission of raw video and variable bit rate (VBR) MPEG video encoding over (1) circuit switching; (2) synchronous packet switching; and (3) asynchronous packet switching. In addition, we show that constant bit rate (CBR) MPEG encoding delivers unacceptable delay-on the order of the group of pictures (GOP) time interval-when maximizing the quality for static scenes. This study aims at showing that having a global common time reference, together with time-driven priority (TDP) and VBR MPEG video encoding, provides adequate end-to-end delay, which is (1) below 10 ms; (2) independent of the network instant load; and (3) independent of the connection rate. The resulting end-to-end delay (excluding propagation delay) can be smaller than the video frame period, which is better than what can be obtained with circuit switching

Published in:

Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 4 )