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Since the introduction of cable television in the United States, networks have grown from one-way analog to the more modern hybrid-fiber coax (HFC) two-way digital broadband networks of today. Early analog systems were often stretched to reach distant neighborhoods resulting in poor signal quality. Upgrades to digital plant, the introduction of audio/video compression, and HFC distribution systems enable a robust two-way broadband network, which can deliver myriad new services with excellent quality. During this digital upgrade process, equipment used both at the headend and at consumer premises was proprietary in nature and non-interoperable. The cable industry soon realized the disadvantages of proprietary equipment and decided to change their systems to a standards-based open system. In this system, multiple vendors will be able to compete and consumer premises equipment (CPE) will be manufactured to be portable and to be sold at retail. With that goal in mind, the cable industry began an initiative, CableLabs' OpenCable project, with the primary objective to standardize CPE functionality and interfaces, in addition to related components and equipment used in the cable plant, where access control can be maintained by cable operators.