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A generalized interpolative vector quantization method for jointly optimal quantization, interpolation, and binarization of text images

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3 Author(s)
F. Fekri ; Center for Signal & Image Process., Georgia Inst. of Technol., Atlanta, GA, USA ; R. M. Mersereau ; R. W. Schafer

This paper presents an approach for the effective combination of interpolation with binarization of gray level text images to reconstruct a high resolution binary image from a lower resolution gray level one. We study two nonlinear interpolative techniques for text image interpolation. These nonlinear interpolation methods map quantized low dimensional 2×2 image blocks to higher dimensional 4×4 (possibly binary) blocks using a table lookup operation. The first method performs interpolation of text images using context-based, nonlinear, interpolative, vector quantization (NLIVQ). This system has a simple training procedure and has performance (for gray-level high resolution images) that is comparable to our more sophisticated generalized interpolative VQ (GIVQ) approach, which is the second method. In it, we jointly optimize the quantizer and interpolator to find matched codebooks for the low and high resolution images. Then, to obtain the binary codebook that incorporates binarization with interpolation, we introduce a binary constrained optimization method using GIVQ. In order to incorporate the nearest neighbor constraint on the quantizer while minimizing the distortion in the interpolated image, a deterministic-annealing-based optimization technique is applied. With a few interpolation examples, we demonstrate the superior performance of this method over the NLIVQ method (especially for binary outputs) and other standard techniques e.g., bilinear interpolation and pixel replication

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Image Processing  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 7 )