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Gallium alloy interconnects for flip-chip assembly applications

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3 Author(s)
Baldwin, D.F. ; George W. Woodruff Sch. of Mech. Eng., Georgia Inst. of Technol., Atlanta, GA, USA ; Deshmukh, R.D. ; Hau, C.S.

For miniature interconnection applications, innovative material systems based on gallium alloys offer potentially attractive alternatives over commonly used bonding materials, such as solders and conductive adhesives, without the reliability and environmental drawbacks. Gallium alloys are mechanically alloyed mixtures of a liquid metal and metallic powders, formed at room temperature. The alloys cure to form solid intermetallic compounds. In this work, gallium alloys have been investigated for flip-chip interconnect applications. Specifically, this paper presents the results of a preliminary feasibility study demonstrating gallium alloys as advanced interconnect materials for flip-chip on laminate applications. The topics covered include the test vehicle assembly process, reliability screening results, preliminary failure mode analysis, and interconnect microstructure analysis. To demonstrate preliminary feasibility and application, gallium alloyed with copper and nickel was used as micro-miniature interconnects between bare silicon chips and printed circuit boards. This study shows preliminary feasibility of such interconnects and reliability tests demonstrate reasonable cyclic fatigue with the use of underfill. Moreover, through the course of this work a new micro-deposition technology for gallium alloys was developed which leverages existing industry infrastructure. This initial study represents a significant advancement in microelectronic interconnect materials unveiling the potential for an innovative lead-fine, low-temperature interconnect alternative

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Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:23 ,  Issue: 2 )