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Fast, reliable head tracking under varying illumination: an approach based on registration of texture-mapped 3D models

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3 Author(s)
M. La Cascia ; Dipt. di Ingegneria Autom. ed Inf., Palermo Univ., Italy ; S. Sclaroff ; V. Athitsos

A technique for 3D head tracking under varying illumination is proposed. The head is modeled as a texture mapped cylinder. Tracking is formulated as an image registration problem in the cylinder's texture map image. The resulting dynamic texture map provides a stabilized view of the face that can be used as input to many existing 2D techniques for face recognition, facial expressions analysis, lip reading, and eye tracking. To solve the registration problem with lighting variation and head motion, the residual registration error is modeled as a linear combination of texture warping templates and orthogonal illumination templates. Fast stable online tracking is achieved via regularized weighted least-squares error minimization. The regularization tends to limit potential ambiguities that arise in the warping and illumination templates. It enables stable tracking over extended sequences. Tracking does not require a precise initial model fit; the system is initialized automatically using a simple 2D face detector. It is assumed that the target is facing the camera in the first frame. The formulation uses texture mapping hardware. The nonoptimized implementation runs at about 15 frames per second on a SGI O2 graphic workstation. Extensive experiments evaluating the effectiveness of the formulation are reported. The sensitivity of the technique to illumination, regularization parameters, errors in the initial positioning, and internal camera parameters are analyzed. Examples and applications of tracking are reported

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  (Volume:22 ,  Issue: 4 )