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This paper describes the architecture and components of a high-speed clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit. Fully differential CMOS circuits are presented for an integrated physical layer controller of a 622-Mb/s (OC-12) system, although the design can be used in other systems with clock speeds in the 622-933-MHz range. Simulations and experimental results are presented for the building blocks including novel designs for a current-controlled oscillator (CCO) and a differential charge pump. The CCO is based on a two-stage ring oscillator. It consists of parallel differential amplifier pairs which reliably generate the necessary phase shift and gain to fulfill the oscillation conditions over process and temperature variations. Two test chips are implemented in 0.35-/spl mu/m CMOS. One contains partitioned building blocks of a phase-locked loop (PLL) which, together with an external loop filter, can be used for flexible testing and CDR applications. The other chip is a monolithic CDR with integrated loop filter. It exhibits a power consumption of 0.2 W and a measured rms clock jitter of 12.5 ps at 933 MHz.
Date of Publication: June 2000