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Summary form only given. Structural studies performed in several families of metallic polymers show that the degree of order, the local structure adopted by the polymeric chains as well as the chain conformation depend upon the synthesis conditions, the stretching ratio and the sample history. These structural features are important variables able to tune the metallic properties of these polymers whose electronic wave function is at the boarderline of the localization-delocalization transition. We illustrate these effects with recent structural measurements performed on the polyaniline family of conducting polymers (PAN) showing direct relationship between the degree of crystallinity and the conducting properties of PAN-HCl fibers, the crystalline coherence length and the low temperature microwave dielectric constant of PAN-HCl. It is also found that the structure of PAN-CSA depends upon the nature of the solvent used to process the material.