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Adhesion and toughening mechanisms at underfill interfaces for flip-chip-on-organic-substrate packaging

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4 Author(s)
Xiang Dai ; Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA, USA ; Brillhart, M.V. ; Roesch, M. ; Ho, Paul S.

The flip chip-on-organic-substrate packaging technology utilizes a particulate reinforced epoxy as the underfill (UF) to adhere the chip to the package or board, Although the use of underfill encapsulation leads to improved reliability of flip-chip solder interconnections, delamination at various interfaces becomes a major concern for assembly yield loss and package reliability. In spite of their importance, the adhesion and fracture behaviors of the underfill interfaces have not been investigated until recently. Considerable controversy exists over the effects of underfill formulation and the adhesion and toughening mechanisms of the interfaces. The present work focuses on investigating the effects of several key variables on the interface adhesion strengths for UF/chip and UF/organic substrate systems. These variables are underfill organosilane content, filler particle content, rubber particle content, surface morphology and chemistry of the chip and organic substrates. The approach of this study is to measure the effect of these variables on the interfacial fracture energy using the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) techniques. The results demonstrate that the underfill interfacial adhesion and fracture characteristics are controlled by several distinct but competing mechanisms, such as formation of primary bonds, crack-pinning by glass fillers, debonding of glass filler from epoxy matrix (defect formation), and cavitation and shearing induced by rubber particles. Fundamental understanding of the interfacial adhesion and toughening mechanisms can provide guidance for developing new processes and materials to enhance interfacial adhesion and reliability

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Components and Packaging Technologies, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:23 ,  Issue: 1 )