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An ultra-fast user-steered image segmentation paradigm: live wire on the fly

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3 Author(s)
Falcao, A.X. ; Inst. of Comput., State Univ. of Campinas, Brazil ; Udupa, J.K. ; Miyazawa, F.K.

The authors have been developing general user steered image segmentation strategies for routine use in applications involving a large number of data sets. In the past, they have presented three segmentation paradigms: live wire, live lane, and a three-dimensional (3-D) extension of the live-wire method. Here, they introduce an ultra-fast live-wire method, referred to as live wire on the fly for further reducing user's time compared to the basic live-wire method. In live wire, 3-D/four-dimensional (4-D) object boundaries are segmented in a slice-by-slice fashion. To segment a two-dimensional (2-D) boundary, the user initially picks a point on the boundary and all possible minimum-cost paths from this point to all other points in the image are computed via Dijkstra's algorithm. Subsequently, a live wire is displayed in real time from the initial point to any subsequent position taken by the cursor. If the cursor is close to the desired boundary, the live wire snaps on to the boundary. The cursor is then deposited and a new live-wire segment is found next. The entire 2-D boundary is specified via a set of live-wire segments in this fashion. A drawback of this method is that the speed of optimal path computation depends on image size. On modestly powered computers, for images of even modest size, some sluggishness appears in user interaction, which reduces the overall segmentation efficiency. In this work, the authors solve this problem by exploiting some known properties of graphs to avoid unnecessary minimum-cost path computation during segmentation. In live wire on the fly, when the user selects a point on the boundary the live-wire segment is computed and displayed in real time from the selected point to any subsequent position of the cursor in the image, even for large images and even on low-powered computers. Based on 492 tracing experiments from an actual medical application, the authors demonstrate that live wire on the fly is 1.331 times faster than live wire- - for actual segmentation for varying image sizes, although the pure computational part alone is found to be about 120 times faster.

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Medical Imaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:19 ,  Issue: 1 )