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Summary form only given. This paper is intended to present the experimental system measuring the X-ray spot size for the 12 MeV LIA. By means of one-time discharge, the system adopts the sharpness-edge method and big-aperture imaging simultaneously, thereby acquiring the size of the X-ray spot. Further on, by numerical calculation with the pre-designed program, and on the basis of the characteristics of the approximate axial symmetry of the X-ray source and the density distribution of the image, the space distribution of spot intensity is simulated. At the same time, the system can determine the modulation transfer function of the space resolution of the X-ray imaging for the 12 MeV LIA.