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A surface micromachined, highly sensitive optical polarimetric sensor using a self-homodyne coherent detection method has been demonstrated. By detecting the small polarization rotation of polarized laser light passing through a glucose-containing fluid, this sensor is suitable for noninvasive glucose monitoring for diabetes patients. A resolution glucose level of 75 mg/dl has been obtained, with a 0.9956 correlation coefficient between the reference and the measured values. This polarimeter has the advantages of full system integration and compatibility with silicon processing industry, which makes an integrated, low-cost noninvasive glucose sensor feasible.