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The constraints on the design of CMOS operational amplifiers with rail-to-rail input range for extremely low supply voltage operation, are addressed. Two design approaches for amplifiers based on complementary input differential pairs and a single input pair, respectively, are presented. The first realizes a feedforward action to accommodate the common-mode (CM) component of the input signals to the amplifier input range. The second approach performs a negative feedback action over the input CM signal. Two operational amplifiers based on the proposed approaches have been designed for 1-V total supply operation, and fabricated in a standard 1.2-/spl mu/m CMOS process. Experimental results are provided and the corresponding performances are discussed and compared.