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We propose the random Manchester codes (RMC) to improve the bit error probability (BEP) performance in both synchronous and asynchronous fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) systems. The spreading sequences used in the synchronous and asynchronous systems are modified prime sequence codes and optical orthogonal codes (OOCs), respectively. Thermal noise, shot noise, and avalanche photodiode (APD) bulk and surface leakage currents are taken into consideration in the BEP analyzes. The results show that the proposed systems can support a larger number of simultaneous users than other systems with similar system complexity under the same bit-error probability constraint.