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PicToSeek: combining color and shape invariant features for image retrieval

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2 Author(s)
Gevers, T. ; ISIS Group, Fac. of WINS, Amsterdam, Netherlands ; Smeulders, A.W.M.

We aim at combining color and shape invariants for indexing and retrieving images. To this end, color models are proposed independent of the object geometry, object pose, and illumination. From these color models, color invariant edges are derived from which shape invariant features are computed. Computational methods are described to combine the color and shape invariants into a unified high-dimensional invariant feature set for discriminatory object retrieval. Experiments have been conducted on a database consisting of 500 images taken from multicolored man-made objects in real world scenes. From the theoretical and experimental results it is concluded that object retrieval based on composite color and shape invariant features provides excellent retrieval accuracy. Object retrieval based on color invariants provides very high retrieval accuracy whereas object retrieval based entirely on shape invariants yields poor discriminative power. Furthermore, the image retrieval scheme is highly robust to partial occlusion, object clutter and a change in the object's pose. Finally, the image retrieval scheme is integrated into the PicToSeek system on-line at for searching images on the World Wide Web

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Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 1 )