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DCT-domain watermarking techniques for still images: detector performance analysis and a new structure

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3 Author(s)
Hernandez, J.R. ; ETSI Telecomunicacion, Vigo Univ., Spain ; Amado, M. ; Perez-Gonzalez, Fernando

A spread-spectrum-like discrete cosine transform (DCT) domain watermarking technique for copyright protection of still digital images is analyzed. The DCT is applied in blocks of 8×8 pixels, as in the JPEG algorithm. The watermark can encode information to track illegal misuses. For flexibility purposes, the original image is not necessary during the ownership verification process, so it must be modeled by noise. Two tests are involved in the ownership verification stage: watermark decoding, in which the message carried by the watermark is extracted, and watermark detection, which decides whether a given image contains a watermark generated with a certain key. We apply generalized Gaussian distributions to statistically model the DCT coefficients of the original image and show how the resulting detector structures lead to considerable improvements in performance with respect to the correlation receiver, which has been widely considered in the literature and makes use of the Gaussian noise assumption. As a result of our work, analytical expressions for performance measures, such as the probability of errors in watermark decoding and the probabilities of false alarms and of detection in watermark detection, are derived and contrasted with experimental results

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Image Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 1 )