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Dependence of refractive index on hydrogen concentration in proton exchanged LiNbO3

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4 Author(s)
Howerton, Marta McWright ; Sachs Freeman Associates, Landover, MD, USA ; Burns, W.K. ; Skeath, P.R. ; Greenblatt, A.S.

The nonlinear relationship between refractive index and hydrogen concentration has been experimentally determined for proton exchanged LiNbO3, incorporating the effects of partial and full annealing. Complete annealing results in low-loss waveguides in the alpha phase with small surface index changes (⩽0.02). The anneal conditions needed to reach the alpha phase can be estimated using the measured temperature dependence of the anneal diffusion coefficient. A model is presented which attributes the index change in the alpha phase to the addition of hydrogen and the loss of lithium, which is consistent with experimental results

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Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:27 ,  Issue: 3 )